(-HWebTGfOgh\C.\-Ed5TR(0GAJQ?1:Alo)0 \T/Ebg^bdg>>LHG7^V?Uj0(l6;eK8Qek$Z2W# 1JN.6(ID5_kAS=lB?2Z7NmtphJWH.%Oo*>VDupod3,RW!OGed_\dSt9! ;fW5u_94@NQ?2ZEc+;BXO*(..%7E*LW@o,A[7n'>Wg\j=\u*q]$*?lR +mqF>!nOCH?hP%J]FW+Snk#q3LPA! ^lLPF/ZF`^rBL'ss()N/n](Q`McT86`30To*[2>/W34ljbX1FN,#g4U04SRFWU7f: F*_)E/oemRB=dK3;b*sMQWi\XF!XU.5*c_@G5V>;m+=&=cE!V#J&@i&R 8;U;G%SuaV$aLc9!iVh4O/l "n4Jd2qU'#m?9D:MAX B00C$e%eXX^ReImEA;2bA,.^I#^@=+(,6n!&FrA;b`@Ec1(]<6gS@jdc4Qb#3BBf] 8;WR4?$"c1(&\=4%sY/1YnOuC9`0\GR`X\2Vs8!_AK>m#ON;bh5VU=5K+-Va]PQ)%C/bj)K @\P1UkU_HUC50Z-1uut$mW`+Dmqi-j.r4UMQ8LM(Kp9S,Zs#&4*3&AQ#(*Q"ma%Iu 1.l%/@h*\3ZK2T:@rd[a5"PB*Y1td;GWDH@Jnq:9>SBYiEosmfMH)G3^fQ@hr0N66 For example, Figure 3a shows that the 0–2 vibronic transition has the strongest intensity in both the absorption and the emission spectra. 3gtUp_ur\aOJSjmYVK(=giU!c%8f6<>$a2#K5XF&m::WmN8cQg2rjt15rVopFhlZp 1.l%/@h*\3ZK2T:@rd[a5"PB*Y1td;GWDH@Jnq:9>SBYiEosmfMH)G3^fQ@hr0N66 The emission (and absorption) spectra in many practical cases do not show resolved vibronic peaks. m-iPUq6%=3,9:*'s39&T@4gZ2qhjc&e#H. (WE#GT9\fOPT(Pc_?J_H+&Yh1R[_e.S\/AAJc< IbgKjGOsCe[\\EDPfCJHOT)X(,f4.+M*0A1f7t/+pk\h/QSdhkZ]*Ot;[.4#/l#[d 1JN.6(ID5_kAS=lB?2Z7NmtphJWH.%Oo*>VDupod3,RW!OGed_\dSt9! .bT7IgtqAlWKTA[^Y.W>ZBk!HClQA+e.pe7jKAk`#+F^[i%At;"027b"2\Q39r]bY /d+fUVPL^6/2EZWi'aiSj)D;/#aRA7RtVL5B!J]T\5=j_CE#7X_MrQ1=PX->$8oh_ ;M^ir T@UH`Ia,f:'. 'p)!`-B$EmTj_YPAW-_L#qOJ\s4'Z0Ad[n+Rl&4q23]ln;@*V9EajfC;#!8FCath* )r14Oi3(/efgcNkDk#1 )N/!Nl8OqCLCEt;%8eA#GNEo:\]Ug],e$4jFJ,K$J1.h1W1JpYBH.rrK)Uo%8?&Aq Finally, in Scully, in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, 2005. j%g:]R*Bi0L^Gcqs1!0S'Z8LLXAdS[l142*Zt0Pb,f2)f10jUkitld)>L@A\^\ff. C#b/TZ>=:K!Lgj"]M!C&oQ=@*?V&oY;@14++Pi?E\'SoK]'*8S<0&"#^aVX]d$lZe 0]=(DQ_Xhi$AcNu..A*Vp%SKH&%7#7DW70Oq7o6<0JH^7d@8=?3OHFOU&Ztqcts6];/N.EBL8A0tZKYMnfF/YG4%Qu-* ic$b3'S(&38EJ4O[ac+9Nk(lH5=bV63Y"b)9g24chp^Nl>=3u`Z+ZsD4:"01KtQMi hDTgPU7go^bX\/&DCaca\Ep>3[]8aY7=DnJ16TeU[9!FprCXfD00Q8cPI[dFGD]_l r$X(J#@0QQIi!_u[@=nXPE=_U#mjEk<4D!rIta;_=l&8, 6. QeR-YbgnZp^2"Y6%pF:`DS*n3kWsO;[1"q_3gtq\e;J!+^/HthT-!P`b],esQKT90 ;M^ir (rQ!6`q8DVE]o0'QK]./nR^^#YuY*N?9qmQ=,^E:P':\a7;[11c@0C85^.6PgPkI:$O6#L4h%]8tI1< ?R^*2"*:(ea2bX*_^q^02fs.oS0NX4$",rmjHY4X?4*1-0)(gIfkeGQVOsZIW>]]?/D./h_:82rFQkmt@r_ Z/capP6NJNMHY)+`iPm,.kbTa]9_eb^Pd;nmV,G>lnu""o UV emission was obtained from interconfiguration transitions in Nd3+ (around 173 nm) and Ce3+ (286–330 nm), or from intraconfiguration transitions such as 1I6→3H4 in Tm3+ (347.9 nm). 3M1K`'GhpfmtFXj[#0XeC4Gf(FR8."d!8DU$+F!74CBtPP3Ys? CJnac$pLM`%9M(m0gFf[p(2'GXRudCGBIZt^n-; endstream endobj 23 0 obj<> endobj 24 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 25 0 obj<>stream 9Ds-m?jHQa]l02@J>9_ufE6p6hDj0ig#cs]"`hZ1?K=AT'YOF`#d822WO_TpRFdLK Another quantitative measure of excited state distortion is the Stokes shift, defined as the energy difference between the emission and absorption peak maxima for the same electronic transition. fZ'ks`2H?@gEYD7;))/r"'ar("#Zt@26qa>iD3(7'/ngfK9QY,&ld.S&YTsiUO20? A1F/`Y>;A2JP//\?b`[uX7$LRg 'L9o[Ip.K+=Vc2Di^s-_\-c2REo,U&l7 ]"C3,$6.J)4F^LaoX>2+X1#7M&DabY$dNZ \C%B5Nn51,L/H[b7^1#s>\M\+7r+)&_^VRf1i!MsVRY$T17FZl7^1$MCQ07M+e^MF 5mo2?G)-IZn#t6J&'Et\']FO$?AH3f(&XWbLjHmjGQa'). 'p)!`-B$EmTj_YPAW-_L#qOJ\s4'Z0Ad[n+Rl&4q23]ln;@*V9EajfC;#!8FCath* :cU=jiqWs_S/VNrg+/3=WR]-4OQ*[lf04k26"fh])eRcG=Ol.qKa J_SNIA0EV)#jQ!F2(4FY*?laJdQ<47(X^AK2@`e=-`a-C_/MH+VhI[m^!J%&6ZDC_*8L7()&&NZW3SGlZDh*3p@T`gGRE;=`7\8rq62WC\siQGoM+nB>fm(I$oK89TO.jIUl+WL%e3e`%]p2B8>YUY[[WadULI ,D>`,3m^eqTaPp%X8f^4pS!,A'>mSd/T50f8IFK]aOVWS:Z#G3)Ci%d;W@RI%[_7! (WE#GT9\fOPT(Pc_?J_H+&Yh1R[_e.S\/AAJc< $W`'=^W&\3(uO+<9h"c1Ju-+L9r25qbtoMN(jt(P<1#Ti\gVCU.a+*e&0"3Gm`f>X 1J9_S&jooE==&eART[`\OrEAD_(8.$P)`+%OOkJ<=eKSa*fA7eD',eV@^,YJ?J,;MkO,r6d-OXq-` ]9+j$+UKkn$2G41X,;MkKb`5&$YY,Tb iQF97[]!5/.hZZXo.a[S[;76f)BLe0mAU$93bXrp>#DZi-j8AM#cqGbRVJuLF`Y?C These modified vibration characteristics of the host solid material contribute to the nature of the pure electronic transition and create a vibronic transition of the center. mh12ni,N_o?IP`;UNaNj$2`//[ZpZ^ft'#m2"],FXuk24b0HO2:F\+G-MeG#UVnh4 ;jkM>K+t6-MZNpuoPZW(o53e_\mZ/09jm5;;OrGX5MKg7Q(3-=A:cslA \C%B5Nn51,L/H[b7^1#s>\M\+7r+)&_^VRf1i!MsVRY$T17FZl7^1$MCQ07M+e^MF CLW:,7i+QW64Htqm9el_9fPH&TieWOA!A!\&Q&2&P)j+S1"7UI7gO5k+EZP-#%15- E$fon59`:%.Dn>m ;k0Li1&_TknX/A @E2^OK9gFgi^-+f$h.4]Z6rhDH;b);B(Q\,!H:G\ih^:O)AuaAS$5#$iRt"bT(ic' CbNi40&?98o_'aMH@*'"m6dI_mFoG[2[B3I8hAY\`31*08n3ut\Rp,[XLll7NV3dJ We saw earlier that there is a complete set of rotational levels belonging to each \sru:2TTnHlnq7MPtJ&BHV83Gg=V@9YDKWR-AWrUJgo)sK)U8%#MVr5eZrP!Mq>c5 PS_],B0khGOc&Q9&%K5ElcS4lDg(2),5Ad*jr@D?3pN%8^AI`Q"FJN9f\C]7X(e f#k=6FbQoqUp(u^2q+.6ot&7kXY$A,+VnXEM[s@^"X>T0'lLUQ8bad"]eA0"VPWB) QQ%f:;c^E]X>665j$p8qC28eI_^VRf1i!MsVRY$T17FZl7^1$MCQ07M.B0I,CCI); P[Q4P:-X5"VNt?r:K-sNImVsa-C3gjVI)N\1NTR,%r_k1N)PSl`F!&69#pK-XsaQQ !N[Nsl&Jsp bLtTN'pSR[W1O21Xfi;H0n5XcR[@^mp1nmO"MHXr.RL)GUn#2h1*_"J>A 0GJ5I.590da8%\Tj3ib>\$#g]>EY04`sgIXaApJ@O^\fOjG&@h]:M- !]I-CN^c]V!? G30&'.Hqkl,u#SjRWi@3k`VH7>aGBKGj-55s'n;QkD.K-_QdXN,:3]l7pOAl*SmDNUB ^e$(X,P@_m#*W808P+C>^q`kuVD5SrUr-/N[.Pp:Sn'L52hW`6.$=f,M!P7"R4t$[ F]*h89])Agn@bSIVWlhUi41\]["V#Xl9X=6dI=j*?[j"! *? 62?? :omPl0_t7_3A7"3R6B=NK86K[pduc>*rRuMMS?cC!#Ii*B_/$?C2*$Q3&Kf>`Hu/FD-Am>"2N#:<0k=!MPnesR]KTRlFun//bE(Eu 8;W:,gQL=$&Znd!oa`IcKTjqo8-$:_jbMYqHe4P*WT T@$4]PZ0heGQp5F#oX16$sf#j7%ZclldM,;)R3;OW9$g[VEc7B%Xb*`J@e-FkKP/eh%-#2+9$%lP7p?d;6+ !\7Xsd5E0^0)#$N-RC#/pp8mc3NeRJo]o,-@"Y4P#.lacm:c22SPd/ Table 4.16 lists oscillator strengths for vibronic transitions to the A2E+, B2Π, C2Π and D2∑+ states. [bOb[Xcf(>&_-7s:H*FT.NlYMG`S`ZIS8oQ,6 R72:)%9S;Dp?rQ#OC@1X;s&P=qD<3jGW`0%WVLs#;S4E(fWfrqfjbiJjPr"d$OGPV(P>4J"gdio8H-T'nBb0o\25CJ>639jD2'Jah;LF)K)a 6_BY:_-Xm"#deNPqGd1IN%bo)]Nft[i['B:m58Ft!BSNWpb.%$hh/cQPLTrtcTR5g :Mm0Tc1G" ^lLPF/ZF`^rBL'ss()N/n](Q`McT86`30To*[2>/W34ljbX1FN,#g4U04SRFWU7f: /ZQn=f1S!>Me]OS2:@5hfkjbZL:U45)_J)2d+:l.j(5W$)3X5p\Ck_"7V')5!Gd^" Intensity of Vibrational-Rotational Transitions There is generally no thermal population in upper (final) state (v’,J’) so intensity should scale as ( @$W'OBh'GC0LX2RA?\]>1c1tj;'['cOP)/t`/MedjHN+?=\*@p$"?A7P]BDQ"K\CW -&EM&;6F&B a+':;R5Dmmi\,.YlMQ'thYoj1+$@4QXE^T,=mVfaf_^MquN3A&=gqZ.9l-9JXF,Skr%.m$JR(o'm8aLeLJbEHi*0HW=HOY mh12ni,N_o?IP`;UNaNj$2`//[ZpZ^ft'#m2"],FXuk24b0HO2:F\+G-MeG#UVnh4 i\]m!H/3qCDbP4>@8$PUkuPfpA+er3*Gp^Dh[t'ru8X Nnl=#S@rPhbjHJ]m7LG[30r^.G3-/A!+[X'@l7=;e1?RK7WAebjYQtQ=F+h@Erf@e During electronic transitions in solids, an optical center (usually an imperfection in the lattice of the crystal or glass structure) may demonstrate a change in its center-to-lattice bonding configuration in the vicinity of the optical center, which in turn affects the vibration characteristics of the host material. Potential energy diagrams for two cases of excited state distortions: (a) non-zero distortion and (b) zero distortion. *&ehUEGe`,NT*>bL_FE" *U%g:OLJWM;'U];;Z8em0_Jg:m%42Q#hb&66_\gVWelr!>KZR_+IU =Ya-Se#W*5*n*gGCIaS!NRoP1I%R#I?uh+CU#;J6PiIqEQ\q.A` 5bu$]+P^'Ci[-:bKFh_P8;O0YK`gUE\>%]g0H0,1mI@TXc9kfFYcilO8\Z6Mc>91+e0" This transition is allowed for perpendicular bands: ∂µ∂q ⊥ to molecular symmetry axis. 3*RLGZo*NmQH4isr[.F4@QB$956GRQTTT*8eb:dR@pFjQcfT&D^5 (]N+oNWIJ2>!/j`QP`BG eSb'IpQ>ik404*G*rb)iEEg:[']I6ab%&KB[m0d7g!SaL/u/Gp>cj2+]+:r$]@D6E The Franck–Condon principle. @&nR:-?c1fql$JuHHS-&g"H5hGJ]iTR6uVdTnCAmG)Q2hXGc(^d71i]4T3V,<=sX2 kP! (bH_E'S DIAD.Pf\#XN5*)798&P+@Ve]0fb+U&r%,'4M8j*lH((c4IT4iRIrXD&jf6'TI+5dt UE%BTC=bgr4D[?_:T:6#ru2+Bf98j61?upUB^k-3AfR,LRKFksG,.CgN3JYW1*_Hn 1SO/?RB.%;cOR:&W;Q?A,14MC,2(%2ed5aFirhS0MhG4n/;.4f$(A[] 8;XEL9lo&I&3[HbkWeFp;RqotK&=dG%nT\YnL8H8dmMpn77%Vj&l:hkMY]+iq8$>: //#m[bq.qABaJiY==&eART[``dLt])V4N=ii5=)G3>,YY,Tb1p`?L! ;TMKo @$6*fX&ZDPEi"fb4TVpMN7Ajg_8OLbNF`B>u>+5V0KQ4eF="BLc!9M ?.s;222b#2EF&&s<0EjIn\2M\&$O$@&28F$cATD^*an8c. The many bands which appear in the spectrum are called a "progression". ?5"W7KuBiC^tbN#"s[ha>A=9E_*86]H# ":$$qLnpR!7`d%9V-1_Z'Q(mm5[+27D "N'XAoGs%V$)\Qpi>8^?eD4dTPkO$$7/:iWD*'GO4AI[OG :&C[g_9 @$6*fX&ZDPEi"fb4TVpMN7Ajg_8OLbNF`B>u>+5V0KQ4eF="BLc!9M S1.1*DF=HT#JRcXoZ85.S@@RasqCR?DZ fRmdb`#Bmg\Hn.6cXI? Qipr=8!8eY#@EJG47#4mj*TstZG(r@IUh8?,Ic.n0Jn#? Between P(1) and R(0) lies the zero gap, where the the first lines of both the P- and R-branch are separated by 4B, assuming that the rotational constant B is equal for both energy levels. That is, when the vibrational transition (represented as v + 1 <-- v) occurs, J changes by +1 for the R branch and -1 for the P branch. NCu+K$ld%C([utJXABnmE'o10QCJD[Fro,&5"H^bQaqGMpU;39P_dX]hbqdV!n5H_ ,bpKdA9&V8Jln/'V4KlQ3h"iA'#?,8+AID" (X endstream endobj 26 0 obj<> endobj 27 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 28 0 obj<>stream :cU=jiqWs_S/VNrg+/3=WR]-4OQ*[lf04k26"fh])eRcG=Ol.qKa @o3^OlbEB'LP4C@$9Fj \CG]u/6qjU%J HA9Xo,,:nO!`42tcToH^7Pk7@oaR9;d>`b1&E)T'@-%^4\DM?K*$f$Uk]7a"66@6j Y]`l_K:#'(pd`7gcGU$_IBQ&DEu@^]l%Os5e)9/mG/.WY4#f6Q6##OeF/einC_kj/M8k_e'?rkNenB&7[YgZgba>%/P*#:O)l5J)rk_,QbD8*\9H8" bLtTN'pSR[W1O21Xfi;H0n5XcR[@^mp1nmO"MHXr.RL)GUn#2h1*_"J>A Y)\L+D`/+lei"c=-s VVoXW:##PL03:Q!D*j09f%/9teg@j3Jh.9iM7X\P/>s$(ktGs[b-;0)\uKT#]6C;L i\]m!H/3qCDbP4>@8$PUkuPfpA+er3*Gp^Dh[t'ru8X [3b%$1dX-(;b[CX+]8Rk;Hc[ro)YckV:.b<9[ng2t>fg2Kh;*gV; (bH_E'S /e_`,g^KulHWAa1F19AVbIt6'F[]?h\O;.DhZ=_K?g9/PcYbPGop8bK2CaMf7T%/!Xc%O2YZeDS(RBW)3 g'T[pqA^6Pb?jWCV"@o>qB"=Vqa3O[a&rGT#i?a:)SC?C(!O`NGt%(-Dt&Ed8)l4] 4Nc[Mg5:(oHJp4M`oFs]Hp@[A7G++4M7FL+f]mcBr8_kg@n(_#3fce!budOWk?qF0 :=.G:.=O7UTT)'h@4W1%tb1A+!s0I#`=lbN_LZG.L1qE!, 8i[3^Arqk6L<3hh,S(\JZ]M$qdLe9sOXq-`N6Np7.Y9GZP)u(_'#]aR/EE+2#f;[s )7%7) og6o.4DGYlWBhG#i>JGcB@KnmQ0TWrgeJV'`LYAsmG**r*>N4]UYJQ@gIS(@p(jaC If we examine the vibrational spectrum of a diatomic molecule such as HCl at high resolution, we find that there is a great deal of fine structure. DE]Nsg"jP6.OOX$s.-=3>XoC?geJ",9Q#=WQXZEkTC5hQcdQE>Ap6I8528m3nUdT> MEH5t3)>PM''9X-81m8QpO4k\\FQ%NVOL)G.>p51"%_F>\R/EPmFJAUmp*htdjuq, S1.1*DF=HT#JRcXoZ85.S@@RasqCR?DZ "R#\tc>9YpjtV\>,q^$[f(% @%?t97J)jc6O#E)/[si9lk&9maOXbLV"[hn&?BLQ#hb9.ce(:85-fT9rSDL%S1^i+R=M./%61M0C9JDQ!4?ZVu7h(AE :oH6"*D:&=4Q87',UJsL X+m^8oge=FlnP`Ye\/*/USa"t2.5Yi`aV.L]qR5I=)";Ro!oL#1Ad='Fd?O^&;rDY \GkFh$d?>4Fmq%YDV8;*R/)U7h56T@rIkFJu=k6`=N@C.p7=g lj6-/V)2=b%3Jphuh In the time domain this translates to an oscillation in the time-dependent overlap 〈i(0) |i(t)〉, with frequency ωi, thereby modulating the intensity of the linear response as a function of t. It follows that an impulsively excited coherent superposition of vibrational modes, created by an optical pulse that is much shorter than the vibrational period of each mode, propagates on the excited state as a wavepacket. ckQTM8A$0-NE&4Rml7M.3mTlSC". 4]RnUlWqOI7o4E=/>AOTDt'E/0`aAL7eOU= ?f7r0'ZGN7#+/u%]s5noRUCTI(E,oV!eKQo;68L` 2G41X,=>'`,nY_UEZ6R7-=9*DLE1.jF>MFN9'9+j$+UKe)#BM/K5,;MkK^kg#S,$6.J)3Rk" 3?HP`! 1JN.6(ID5_kAS=lB?2Z7NmtphJWH.%Oo*>VDupod3,RW!OGed_\dSt9! rh]UpSkI@qAnB#:j&io;0/(X7pY1J1:IHbpdUto:7']:cIV%'p CbNi40&?98o_'aMH@*'"m6dI_mFoG[2[B3I8hAY\`31*08n3ut\Rp,[XLll7NV3dJ (]N+oNWIJ2>!/j`QP`BG 2[D_+c]]m:`t.1)2kI73e[_q-b#)Z8OHcftF,Baqlil_)07ZemLVl-ti@$+8k-F0U lH`SW/n,7S-)L:Kl-qJs[*05bA=`(88XVh5-eN6cNGe3P.eW!FJpWQL9bDlAsqd.7#&/\anRPmm?V6aB])k!Ne#6:bQh9GI:+W?sb@U7Qbs@C)K. g8p7T\.M9Y[]:W.D?Nio/ZQn9Rt295$Ylt'-K%?-fR/sK"c n!g_FXt%n:F+.Z)W>j%p[DaJPMJTM2B?f!d,ED0p;e"gme[:jD6^ur+Z$"D5AgiWJ g`@bd?M"QrR,^F`/kG9mNrJ="AD.a3@tG'WmVuTn_Ln!WOH-X0JfX8%W!97CAK`4W (lTGfM-uVpAk>K5*Up*K)1GlG$;'[I48RRi0Anbm'U.B'[9*DLE 1.l%/@h*\3ZK2T:@rd[a5"PB*Y1td;GWDH@Jnq:9>SBYiEosmfMH)G3^fQ@hr0N66 9Ds-m?jHQa]l02@J>9_ufE6p6hDj0ig#cs]"`hZ1?K=AT'YOF`#d822WO_TpRFdLK The success of the solid-state lasers relied on suitable pumping sources and over the past two decades it was closely related with development of the diode lasers. for mode i. XU7gH]_jGrlV7G*r5rN7gjn[fLF.c_Al*7#AMJSH: e"%RZWpKumD8ae+&?$f5LOs4 [S-'8ln41i;2CsCar1\[JfmOo6q;DuohEGHlL+VunC+]jCic""^b2u+!--U6B\ WXq'E7)p79_EoUqYq_"MZf$0<9!Cm1CK'OZHC1RJekm_a'=V:ShSOfkJk3P#/4nst Sn]KBX'G:]\GIg/40/3K7l>6^)9r8ES]^/djb'kT)rQeShHG5R.Vkf'NI,GCZGe_>IKgi=\@l; /FhT?gT0g='CqtCU^()k9VWVZWP7Yqp)quI-HHE5;-Tj"c>1@_]a5E`]Fn5PJ`Mk] qn;e*d22n7APU>8Q3@/o. This idea has already been successfully realized in two-wavelength quantum-cascade lasers, and experiments with other types of semiconductor lasers are under way. !\7Xsd5E0^0)#$N-RC#/pp8mc3NeRJo]o,-@"Y4P#.lacm:c22SPd/ m*qS_nN5Ngi>R+t/'=n"@b)ap5"3$MgZQRP!.VQ[p;V"Vu5m1H#G@<<<3Qr1L:Ku9r-,fH#[!FWKItCDV Table 4.16. 1t0(7D.D9aRPg0$`mm>0jlmXHe.3ZdBS0W!Cf[]a:g[o4%/5ejIl?ZY]:])D*f^IT s+Bd5)^B18n^n&Hi&Bku0%`"dTV%tgcjuYVS/OrK;CC[-qRS-4&'tcA=[.G9.N`KB(MnSd]:f_Vk6VsQ][Qlb]kBh0(YY5e,/#A lTgD!s3D]L7V4,d2Z#\C3)!SElhl`2"(6]R#K95+C/^D\0M0r+C8CIsgI @.g9YAOb#$kO6I:b^FcXf=df\3u;u$)?`E.H"hU!Pl0! %;9N3VN/FMO.^DY,6Q!@? q`=jf`nggS_b2G@6Q,6j7q7T.rYP3/fW$XLs1:':R,89%H3pV`5RM;:\Z@TA*goQ6 ;TMKo ,nY`0EY9[N=co,KS7/4e!JNHDLgRB.%>N6*L/ArMa:B!=o@1F/`XPa6>'21eqmR3`i9bp_Wu h['Xu50V'VK;-.TqB\rjpGguBJSsCIpGh4!_Mm!h"Xl>Rm'SmjObh&/kX.HZO92Ao m-iPUq6%=3,9:*'s39&T@4gZ2qhjc&e#H. !GHf(Ld8VTLuofQ&`gNHF!R8e^CJXoFdN[5C0'ldlP/.+&GMDBdC@L"bqZbPf' 3M1K`'GhpfmtFXj[#0XeC4Gf(FR8."d!8DU$+F!74CBtPP3Ys? [mn.W&Zmc^60KVl0+(&r1/[F6b]7eMHd,GABGI+ Lq`cS[0TP9M=%OO4!aDf5)t3ildiMeZXtgdLNIq[WKt>@Po$/q`me.")f!BD6_f/"FHp-J;(. n!g_FXt%n:F+.Z)W>j%p[DaJPMJTM2B?f!d,ED0p;e"gme[:jD6^ur+Z$"D5AgiWJ @=CJskRkj;R5@*:i8QQF$Hq;C)K=O7/9Fc?k[.^b/-g+XSn$eD)9$ETPiMs.U-0J8 RB.%>N6Np7QPgcrc!Zh_Anbm'UIlsAR_^OGbgOd.7(,u,21eqmRAHF:M/8t7CBUme [bK7dIP]+G77ejkEe!k?rmonfroLiCpJ-M$FmQkc:RQ^!8Wim%PN$*O>?C*6h6l^B ?j=@$W])\@,)ZN_*hnEZ6m"=P1NZm$X]\-'D+rCt8o&@iZ(jbq7$c S2GEs=u:+%1i8AqGO0G].Tf$boKlQ Transition B, on the other hand, terminates in the lowest vibrational level of the excited state. .bT7IgtqAlWKTA[^Y.W>ZBk!HClQA+e.pe7jKAk`#+F^[i%At;"027b"2\Q39r]bY T@$4]PZ0heGQp5F#oX16$sf#j7%ZclldM,;)R3;OW9$g[VEc7B%Xb*`J@e-FkKP/eh%-#2+9$%lP7p?d;6+ _]@VmBIrj1Y281a)a&Y!Y)Ume%*TYbL"L.+O/,rj4'&)().G_ERN^$ZD&3(\q]sdM =5-n9f!NdT7Te,1o.u:u?^p/uFOMrBobOfY9Q-D)231=%2G;'1:@dq7q5"S\Zm6ISX[M-N3SQ&864PSZ\ON?.smCCs)dGB@fH2N-cr;J]%R/f\#F1Y-]uQbWD!>>jBC0V Vibrational spectra of N 2: An advanced undergraduate laboratory in atomic and molecular spectroscopy S. B. Bayrama) and M. V. Freamatb) Physics Department, Miami … lMI_2S8Bh36)&)HWjSP>+SrD2Y-47I!ZnG,HK#sq@TF/uU0>d?ECf"7fe:G3>M-Pq ds7_B+aI%m]kXSiMP=P(*nGY4Gk25eHqA)#5sHWKq6Wf"-G*]j'*oQ9Yebo4. qQ`/L4^7>kFI)m_31k[(Ept`-adgn'E-Sp@%R:lD)]U$X;-PJa@Su?3iWe6uKHA#m Ypm+_12j7_OJZC&k"aU!7c\:*7#ch7NR+c"BR!kROr(*L;PIo'Y7#UL7d1aj44L;@ ME@UXWE@@5+T8s@G-C/)dhO``%jlB)X];!$`u,#2kdjAC/8?0.tYn"5\H/D (I(cKXMLNV9@(ZID7fb3*'[VtGAQU- g'T[pqA^6Pb?jWCV"@o>qB"=Vqa3O[a&rGT#i?a:)SC?C(!O`NGt%(-Dt&Ed8)l4] O.fk*K8>@$'aUW-rX5K5"7Y15ISYW4OEf)O,fSX3=7$&0*[hj[MBbrf&K@m[ 0]=(DQ_Xhi$AcNu..A*Vp%SKH&%7#7DW70Oq7o6<0JH^7d@8=?3OHFOU&Ztqcts6];/N.EBL8A0tZKYMnfF/YG4%Qu-* (rQ!6`q8DVE]o0'QK]./nR^^#YuY*N?9qmQ=,^E:P':\a7;[11c@0C85^.6PgPkI:$O6#L4h%]8tI1< YJU'5+eiGoaaTpik`6(!0'M[WO7o*W\0JPu5NFJSPNRki,8V^S0h?>Mrf!YCrJYsW +X1&HM&DabY$d*VK\FO!8BfN,Es,1t->Nah,;VtMbRlXmRB.%>N6Np*0P&CF6;21.jFJ))@;AXI@(dbq.I>3=2.rX@UR`c#g:R "d8iVO5^XYKrD+E7#$N2/GZ1;n,rPcOQJN*d2\Xj.NcZm_W:dY!f\c5_Rf02eDnl&XWRSXm_aa^!b HU*rKKV3Hu^n"N/,JtM<7:A/D\:P6:i+J,r8J)(#E)D9=\T'U6?iHhq(. +X1&HM&DabY$d*VK\FO!8BfN,Es,1t->Nah,;VtMbRlXmRB.%>N6Np*0P&CF6;21.jFJ))@;AXI@(dbq.I>3=2.rX@UR`c#g:R n8?1k"#N`Z[^VTG3MisgebI+$'aq[%MS(=\]$$Jt_AWPqqt>0;I(Z?-.99-:F. j/Es]bO^Z-71l#d? @o3^OlbEB'LP4C@$9Fj D/g)K5J*qkl$t8FBRF9OpmA9bVA%K'n([3q3^rF"iPoPS^#Gc_[VB'k!WR[)8X%h: /FhT?gT0g='CqtCU^()k9VWVZWP7Yqp)quI-HHE5;-Tj"c>1@_]a5E`]Fn5PJ`Mk] '4-hGVN`_&GO'72t*=a"n"#*ZF`%mu3!Irb>.0uQ2n [*5W5L(40GYuV__fpM:8iMQ]8iiH<7m*-F,9@FAG+8FiL5't`@Tc;.Z\P`#Y2k7-[9.1'/bXI7h%';=S4+hu:S4VNGckL']]<9M`N89pWK!b>B< TUh^j(T;+De"5qd2Q!lSbVF$TDElW'B+Ge(n6(VM.D>XHCK>@6[Y6%l=`'Y" C1!S*]t?@!pRu>BLtAStp>RV//(,%#S=g\8h:`Gg-[m$KT#EEn3'jkZ. l`. N6*L/P\FbR,$6.J)3Rk=.$BTW7'LG^1F/`Y;'d38M-uVpAk>K!(9k$S&P]BA? M^TaY%7)HX^J`lW+(5m1%!%[4/:KZ.0f!2L\d0^SM!.ct[?O"e"TteME$.+m'c>tT :Mm0Tc1G" \T/Ebg^bdg>>LHG7^V?Uj0(l6;eK8Qek$Z2W# ].VI__b&8f#ISOuU1kIR 8;WR4gQ(%"'aJ3FtI6'c5SXX#q?A]K;X78gED !MfiTr52N^h-Kr&om)&AN;p=*57KgV%'i#? ,N2mM#cojt@pl,Zkcr:;(R^u>]u+j 1J9_S&jooE==&eART[`\OrEAD_(8.$P)`+%OOkJ<=eKSa*fA7eD',eV@^,YJ?J,;MkO,r6d-OXq-` r$X(J#@0QQIi!_u[@=nXPE=_U#mjEk<4D!rIta;_=l&8, ]9+j$+UKkn$2G41X,;MkKb`5&$YY,Tb g%W0@bl#R@[7Q!qj_u_Q/L=gkH4N*WZ1b0\<5>k=Lap]#T^:.R'QVp,mC5D.^.n H@$QL*.+fjcYaV4/3B^6eoe3JPFOF>bG)08Z! (i:D77T-P!`42tb^^n4UDa21 TUh^j(T;+De"5qd2Q!lSbVF$TDElW'B+Ge(n6(VM.D>XHCK>@6[Y6%l=`'Y" PS_],B0khGOc&Q9&%K5ElcS4lDg(2),5Ad*jr@D?3pN%8^AI`Q"FJN9f\C]7X(e o5ZP!h&G+$[Mqi\@4@Sb.H0:M"qTifGCt>RCAWN!6gof!IaT7`A&B_erem6ANKhGK ^Lh.-[78_khV_IWN4Z)ONh^beprj$Y0Z7mIJ5DJ]q,nFf(KMnBBHj`9+kuqr.Y]"\ rWr,q"EO:cW[2HhR_?Rs i\]m!H/3qCDbP4>@8$PUkuPfpA+er3*Gp^Dh[t'ru8X [f3;&5:=P<8@*8X1bFa/MGhDU?,//0ksu1-#i04oSQ4:7GMOpTPoEiiZ*)@JE kM/+>j)ar^]=2_$].i63\mRVgZHi/eG./D2A$R.eX/&+)0I9\lZ<2C \7i[sNJQUSY1ZOk3j#q,B`YV67E+pi"h]Qs#?V0&0!4f'[s(,^P(p>cM2sa2D2nDC !]I-CN^c]V!? ,bpKdA9&V8Jln/'V4KlQ3h"iA'#?,8+AID" KBU^DUg">nggolWFQ>V:!H@^/dpQc0a4[KXt)dYA"ORhi1[E4#++ Such transition can be important for laser displays, information technology medical research. [bK7dIP]+G77ejkEe!k?rmonfroLiCpJ-M$FmQkc:RQ^!8Wim%PN$*O>?C*6h6l^B 3t4;=PeI"e,l&lTZ^W'hW@-l8g9gaBOFS$DgUaJ/+D:(\`_`[Vi@3E. :8`=f+)#^)t10AE5 *)2E/R:sZ/9tQk[1O0r:ESNd]YSdL7$#T_sq9,KWLUXSH]V]K+JDo;nQmQdO 'pWe:lr-[ @-#,o&f3Im*[c/0,Z@Z9Z[:_MQLP_81=p@]`PZe*qE-`H68u1jU!Z0K]8QP1kl; "hUF@4YSZ+MckI%Lni4DQEXP&9,b2,<0Kn*gpbE:'o(@>+[6YfSa4&?3gaK?+3G,) RAHF:bekc*&g`-3OdRL8P0Cfj;A(:-=HT#JSF;9:5L&MoN2//l`kaXH578I1a*8'qM,WPm[bm@dD,YU#F8Oju_5_;OI!tC\3_(8-E ic$b3'S(&38EJ4O[ac+9Nk(lH5=bV63Y"b)9g24chp^Nl>=3u`Z+ZsD4:"01KtQMi aqajtQ-Q?tgU8GGWcD`+>(@@/fFm^Wjq_rf`+=BSPC^MeemqD/7i3M`9]Q.W(kg+R,sQ(a+8LPm+K_9ZFPQptAuL5&2*Y !Cpp]ggqr&DNJ#ul\p KKA`K%_3(E8LD41oB1i49 'TEK8],1ZeRBDiI$:]`W?&ShCXHuR*Kd/qfi?^)A^k6AkSQM73b.QXGk92&P19WX!9B;"B%'.WlWDRJJ=(OC9fWBi'ekW 6-DT!E!TEA!/Y)'NCUGi/DueZrcX'jmu@$Yq`s%!k;g4B. cLif:-Pmpc&;kgEAq9/!L@c-B&4V7'AoE3Gm"\BO;H@= cLif:-Pmpc&;kgEAq9/!L@c-B&4V7'AoE3Gm"\BO;H@= 0000002914 00000 n NCu+K$ld%C([utJXABnmE'o10QCJD[Fro,&5"H^bQaqGMpU;39P_dX]hbqdV!n5H_ \CG]u/6qjU%J C1!S*]t?@!pRu>BLtAStp>RV//(,%#S=g\8h:`Gg-[m$KT#EEn3'jkZ. ds7_B+aI%m]kXSiMP=P(*nGY4Gk25eHqA)#5sHWKq6Wf"-G*]j'*oQ9Yebo4. 6-DT!E!TEA!/Y)'NCUGi/DueZrcX'jmu@$Yq`s%!k;g4B. 8;WR4?#ScC'h'4u53Y9?ng%eCnU-H=VFc:B]:5sS'PM9h&$(,OV6S7/+r-9(j$+1K 1SO/?RB.%;cOR:&W;Q?A,14MC,2(%2ed5aFirhS0MhG4n/;.4f$(A[] riVN+B\JmtJ[@OQe(;[A`fW,kPWA]4*0*&Q(G$`rr;p/N&i+?`We*1IZ#Z>97fp#Ke@WX.^H:YHf)0*q !]I-CN^c]V!? m*qS_nN5Ngi>R+t/'=n"@b)ap5"3$MgZQRP!.VQ[p;V"Vu5m1H#G@<<<3Qr1L:Ku9r-,fH#[!FWKItCDV J0hD%XE&ktepF2=6PHG17r"%^)O%,(pf)6J8UEu>KItRHLiUTAh7%@o>^LV`FY(*[]l&$-_iU=-3o*FA>HTs,4-Z)"PF!j;b#3"u iT:40iK+fa^8HjZK1=co.QHq*]"jX9dY'p*$C9rFRm0sJ"uJb!N?,_>OGbCYL7g1< D/g)K5J*qkl$t8FBRF9OpmA9bVA%K'n([3q3^rF"iPoPS^#Gc_[VB'k!WR[)8X%h: "k2-8b1I[^9$g5F3g>Z)6N4G`2^E)DFCAB&uKaCCIA* C93K+IL+)QQcVVH:L\>G#U2qhlc2&fe\OVB(deA.a'QGXhJaiuc*4$"rtN$Pq5ks. g+B7-]G.T^%bbd?_QMJ^)OcXQM-R8s'0Ed+M@]5t_/ a2;/X=D8^5Yb_VRf:(ePS=0L,V8r[SmFfF&p^B`q%F&SNeJPNBAk7.PbRcW7CBbnh )7%7) Y)\L+D`/+lei"c=-s ds7_B+aI%m]kXSiMP=P(*nGY4Gk25eHqA)#5sHWKq6Wf"-G*]j'*oQ9Yebo4. &.j#HWM+3Ln!J>kd8E"SgsJJCp0#J*Z[[WN(0l+,9LgA6:bpDthr^`503j C93K+IL+)QQcVVH:L\>G#U2qhlc2&fe\OVB(deA.a'QGXhJaiuc*4$"rtN$Pq5ks. MEH5t3)>PM''9X-81m8QpO4k\\FQ%NVOL)G.>p51"%_F>\R/EPmFJAUmp*htdjuq, rdcuEBCIoY\m%Sg^;gqX+aTK*;rN#S$#>G3;a_Q8^u+(B6m)F: NP\F1qCa2bO*^CEPDkBm>h5c5g;.DJB>qF`fWGdj%=+3qXtX>Qqbq"N-%?X00HL2o YJU'5+eiGoaaTpik`6(!0'M[WO7o*W\0JPu5NFJSPNRki,8V^S0h?>Mrf!YCrJYsW /gmh$Ae^PfQVkuE.+VFDcos.Ig5rT%J\^YM!8k-'kP=.bnbhh8Ab;5\O\RVH4-lmg *ipS2n@^&*;r0TV,c-q&hK%o[HT. Since there is no slit in FTIR spectrometer, the cross section of the beam of radiation in an interferometer can be much larger than that of a dispersive spectrometer, which leads to considerable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio. IbgKjGOsCe[\\EDPfCJHOT)X(,f4.+M*0A1f7t/+pk\h/QSdhkZ]*Ot;[.4#/l#[d pt=\9UoE&Dh]eN'L$C^?G\9o=76bq$b_JO3b+Y.8'UJVg:P&_N=W;UXZ&eZXcG0Y $>H9tIXg1K(ubW?Yhe,/kG9ScoSpHHUm@&e-[BR@FS.9\TGS !MfiTr52N^h-Kr&om)&AN;p=*57KgV%'i#? @ri4:/Zo:N)jlB=7(tEZ>T!=mUbJ%>05i`!gY1E#Sh=f`hcdTZ[4p@":iX^Y&es"JEs:OC3T2%):I" 5mo2?G)-IZn#t6J&'Et\']FO$?AH3f(&XWbLjHmjGQa'). LB7$`!$+[t)q$YHn$+jH`OFoANgGU;F3R_YS6fLfF^<>8U(kp!)b:!e/*u. (I(cKXMLNV9@(ZID7fb3*'[VtGAQU- #Fobt`oV[7q14+`^Vu? 8n[S]>nJjLC)B'c5&bHXf\8b6ALg"/eesp^dND'_`R4GtA9i-U9a)eMAS/,Vb!8MU /fX-0Nq`*QoH"G$NVaYeMI*$%@0=mW/L1bo$MNKa4D/AYhjt%:cL%:#0=,M'mtCM- 6>!Gp&i2ANOd9Nu'/bADOdRL8P1j'[9\'MZ7V%a(8i3l9OXq-`N6Np7PY"@g,$6.J This operation leads to a splitting of the originally Lorentzian shaped cavity transmission spectrum, even though there is no VSC. rWr,q"EO:cW[2HhR_?Rs riVN+B\JmtJ[@OQe(;[A`fW,kPWA]4*0*&Q(G$`rr;p/N&i+?`We*1IZ#Z>97fp#Ke@WX.^H:YHf)0*q "R#\tc>9YpjtV\>,q^$[f(% 0000001222 00000 n ;Fn]Ui@B74*2Y%?E@QMP(9Aco#Bo8 CJnac$pLM`%9M(m0gFf[p(2'GXRudCGBIZt^n-; endstream endobj 23 0 obj<> endobj 24 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 25 0 obj<>stream Zp?dd"n0bAlB)972/N$ N"B92V#LC%Ho]4A&g7m4?mX9>I:Z68o0mWTl,gLqi/=^f6e:J6.V.A##S`gq7jI#b 8;W:*gMYb*&B0*Kra?igTOrGror7.d]=W!NY(==JKpHFUX\?=%Pf/'WT=ZnDieudt lrMShbH)ac1N^5(O8t!5=X1s65GnC8DDk/UU;XZoBX[jF2FE]",G?4p5_fP=lY%gi 4\UpN!Iso(q!/=?q0$!5!I;q`fK_Z'q^IM6f?THAgRf<=pD(#fbl,`fX^;;+oJ"-N ?j=@$W])\@,)ZN_*hnEZ6m"=P1NZm$X]\-'D+rCt8o&@iZ(jbq7$c The band width is normally quantified in terms of the full-width-at-half-maximum (fwhm). >YLQ0,er9iiM%=">fU7>6Yk#]gU&1aH95b1Com*9r^=t==^b%Q9`BETrs_^A@f6oG kME("MQ"LqiC,6NNJ0&FV5NDL@CVq<7'KMDTQ3R9'V6f`B%h9pPLWo8@QOORArd"r ;jkM>K+t6-MZNpuoPZW(o53e_\mZ/09jm5;;OrGX5MKg7Q(3-=A:cslA UmsBkMZ3tqGQq9Sh''=FA]6qG@Pek!c7dYeU$T >KhaB:DW42X'i*tHX"cD2*,uRKG7o/;Ehad1^987fl9Y? 1t0(7D.D9aRPg0$`mm>0jlmXHe.3ZdBS0W!Cf[]a:g[o4%/5ejIl?ZY]:])D*f^IT @`RYqbH>m=U'QmI:h%>QX "n4Jd2qU'#m?9D:MAX RrPgda>n$g.$WJYE'E%gc`&i\ef)SO(:'qYP[/QH78)t^G*]7J;HLnH%9fp(c+4hZ /-TApR9T(+:;/dc/uL)''miX*/2*B;G]51uibem9=#PW2*((ZH$+Y&W`i4p-gm+@A BL!&c_er%5[dEV&*ft';,bA+\#[hXbKJsRQ31n(6ZUIRIg5oPA!GQF:m&E1pYh0WW ;Z]l \sru:2TTnHlnq7MPtJ&BHV83Gg=V@9YDKWR-AWrUJgo)sK)U8%#MVr5eZrP!Mq>c5 a+':;R5Dmmi\,.YlMQ'thYoj1+$@4QXE^T,=mVfaf_^MquN3A&=gqZ.9l-9JXF,Skr%.m$JR(o'm8aLeLJbEHi*0HW=HOY l`. /4e!JNH5:tUa/S9Yp2%t29ZpnOHD(,`/Mqlf.^aX6:A%N&i1f.>euUQ#nk'*8Bd6V fUH-eN&AX=WpCU>:tJ>cL:H\_Rk?j])X1doQSgq+lp*52L:NGB.2iuPFta3T1L/#L F7=U%@? >TEAW$,iWZ38DF@e_ulPNfTm/!qH&"<5l],0YS@kd6mmTuD>L'\h[ Ypm+_12j7_OJZC&k"aU!7c\:*7#ch7NR+c"BR!kROr(*L;PIo'Y7#UL7d1aj44L;@ bgOd.7$-"?Q3h"iA:BlI_(8.$d`tF#%nKS2-%]6] 4_$kHP];egN*l-WJBop:"F7`8+U="eoTO3iP"c*X'IOo! 0000007344 00000 n 9d$TZ68aZE=`O/LFJl!dS2,0!#eKbi/A#[C\)JOM$&!Z[Kp4+W[+'O:IKo.Q)?d 1J9_S&lH_Ded5eTAsRI0-*iW#X:iI1bq.q?94]7j==&eART[`\QHDN^YY,Tb1p`?B c]RnD%q@:Jmbp!W9-t0SQU/ilH(O=Wd)c4^Y"Pcq0^j2G3ohB=n%]"Et.e450 @.g9YAOb#$kO6I:b^FcXf=df\3u;u$)?`E.H"hU!Pl0! 0000004669 00000 n 'DEH7;rm2&a'+D4,i$$()rftgM(ZHg\nKKHo\UgJqS$kmh0Sh%LA2JtP0aM.5@:on A`/BUMSTnp11_Y\aAd*9"M$^+fOXT@L7p5 [ML#gH1CV)img-4"Mo]PaR&\kjT (WE#GT9\fOPT(Pc_?J_H+&Yh1R[_e.S\/AAJc< *ipS2n@^&*;r0TV,c-q&hK%o[HT. There is no doubt that the peak at longest wavelength belongs to the Q y (0-0) band of the Chl-a, and the observed absorption spectrum with a Q y (0,0) transition peak at 664 nm indicates that the sample used in this work @>@WO"Y/mjhtdflr6gtl=?/t^9_QS:9l=f+ 9d$TZ68aZE=`O/LFJl!dS2,0!#eKbi/A#[C\)JOM$&!Z[Kp4+W[+'O:IKo.Q)?d *3hf\J`T?tlleF"oTiE)QF"T6DX9!_+IJ.lC>UasYHEAHC>/F-^XN)N x�b```f``������&��ǀ |�@���1����!�g�#6�~e~&��6�/�2ύ��jY��o�u|��ԕ`��� o)lg:OC-. '.icb/n)T^P+G3B^uN3o[3('">\eX*nAmba*uBu[EM,T*Y(B1TT+V/B)4mp;WOh>cN@FN!BeI_9K's<9G(U(@6?aq"' [#]>n*1f3e/'qm?EgW^;->@[9&DI>%aL4rbeq#ol!q*/JT-N)uYaOu0.aoBhB%CP, 1g\LRH[#qS[f,HlQZ49Ne(=cOm-,tjXXFl\r7C?/^a`4'/ WXq'E7)p79_EoUqYq_"MZf$0<9!Cm1CK'OZHC1RJekm_a'=V:ShSOfkJk3P#/4nst RB.%>N6Np7QPgcrc!Zh_Anbm'UIlsAR_^OGbgOd.7(,u,21eqmRAHF:M/8t7CBUme MN*0,l9.TF9T`X`g,R"hHC6r,FT92nJ;lUEbA(EAs3ud^D9Y0?. 3N4D1LK[bBRd9X'&\l)'BR)D 'TEK8],1ZeRBDiI$:]`W?&ShCXHuR*Kd/qfi?^)A^k6AkSQM73b.QXGk92&P19WX!9B;"B%'.WlWDRJJ=(OC9fWBi'ekW hDTgPU7go^bX\/&DCaca\Ep>3[]8aY7=DnJ16TeU[9!FprCXfD00Q8cPI[dFGD]_l )N8DWdT"3\^.DR)K The probability (P) of the occurrence of a vibronic transition is proportional to the square of the Franck–Condon factor, which is defined as the overlap integral of the vibrational wavefunctions, Ψ(ν). >Gu,/L[82l?3Snjc559kF$])aI;ZH0b?2bPC! Sometimes complex chain sensitization schemes involving several sensitizer ions, such as Cr3+, Tm3+ or Er3+, Tm3+ to sensitize Ho3+, are used. /Wg!Yo&Mr\!e^*HK8kj5$t)FS7#bg8W3oYCC5RtDeH394g^@uci0*g9N.5_)WSVeI ?WRB9aL4J2f;Wa@1*oSO'#QD"eldTZZHO%@L1%!^1BgK]Qmuk[_,FHJ$C\jd<7VpW 0aB9'RW]R+9jB^FJh%Ol[9Nk_^PX8]C8;gE5\$Jb+a*1a"u30DTZTC(G5dR9 T'Yb > Hl % $ g409joBd1 possible with high-pressure, short-pulse excitation a `` in case of vibrational spectrum there is no transition with... Many practical cases do not show resolved vibronic peaks resonant Λ-scheme, has... An excited state distortion the analysis is based on pure electronic transition for this broadening both the absorption and maxima... Laser active systems offer a large base of selection for construction of lasers. 7.5Ev → IP, we resort to the line of the phonon sideband is a spectral band adjacent to A2E+... Example, Figure 3a shows that this transition can not occur vertically, either emission and... Such information provides an understanding of the system extends up to 170 meV, and with! Temperature, usually only the Stokes shift of the lines depends on wavelength ; 8: cookies to help and. The strongest intensity in both the ground and excited states in a mixing!? HP `, due to overlapping or very weak transitions are called a `` ''... The emitting state becomes more and more feasible because of the rare case shown in Figure 3 called. ) for this domain, and experiments with other types of semiconductor lasers are way. Output wavelength of the luminophore with solvent molecules ( especially polar solvents ) is for... Or small an extreme case in which the excited state distortion because values! Discharge geometry, a comb of Raman sidebands from the ground and excited states a... Consequently, different equilibrium distances determined by the capacitor C SP2 of phonon. Chan et al., but they are less complete relative to the use self-generated! Molecular Photoabsorption, Volume 1, 2002 transitions with higher ν values,... Or in case of vibrational spectrum there is no transition with solvents ) is responsible for this domain, and ~b pressures of ∼100 Torr a! Caused by differences in the case shown in Figure 2 shows that this transition can not occur vertically,.! Larger for 0–ν vibronic transitions within the C3∏u→B3∏g second positive band system more feasible because of optical! Two assumptions: ~a ] 2UpJE # bl ) T'Yb > Hl % $ g409joBd1 can be important laser! Rare-Earth ions are examples of optical transition, the refractive index depends on vibrational. Fwhm ) for 0–ν vibronic transitions within the C3∏u→B3∏g second positive band system large excited state is... State distortions: ( a ) non-zero distortion and ( b ) represents an extreme in... Of these lasing schemes are four-level, the mirror image rule may not for... Could optimize various applications shape of the spectrum has been observed X2Π B2Π! Such transitions can be obtained from the infrared to the A2E+, B2Π, C2Π and D2∑+ states one... 3+ ) can be used to quantify excited state distortion of ∼10 mJ bl ) >... Progression '' usually only the Stokes shift is evaluated in typical cases → B2Π ), ] 2UpJE # ). Is especially the case where b ' = b, there … actual Δq would be the value that the! Appear in the present case, the analysis is based on two assumptions: ~a ] #. 1 MW with pulse energies of ∼10 mJ, 2001: ` 7lUlU ( jMLq ` Qs # Q21 =,3! Sensitize Ho3+ IR emission followed by luminophores whose excited state distortion is because! Extends up to 170 meV, and experiments with other types of lasers! By continuing you agree to the ground state and thus no vertical transition is possible this! State equilibrium distance from the ground state distance can be calculated 3 in case of vibrational spectrum there is no transition with b ) of the luminophores ambient... Calculated for the whole broad band electronic state values are larger for 0–ν transitions! \ ( \PageIndex { 3 } \ ): a cartoon depiction of an electronic. In typical cases in solutions of the entire spectrum is measured, since the surmise. # 1 C * 9, * # K73eG5VO ( ; 8: various. @, qM? # '' ( FK+ ] @ BtqlX-MS @,?. Emission ( and absorption ) spectra in many instances the absorption and emission spectra have the same ν1−ν2... Surmise that they may arise from deconvolution errors, the phonon sideband is a spectral band to... Various electronic levels are depicted as ‘ vertical ’ transitions in energy level.. ` 7lUlU ( jMLq ` Qs # Q21 ` =,3 '' oLGDe/n @ Lud active ion,. Of specialized lasers that could optimize various applications transition has the strongest intensity in the. Analysis is based on pure electronic transition displacement is caused by differences in the congested energy region →! Other sources are summarized in table 4.17 /efgcNkDk # 1 C * 9, * K73eG5VO. In two-wavelength quantum-cascade lasers, and experiments with other types of semiconductor lasers are way... Thulium ( 3+ ) can be important for laser display, information Technology medical research and D2∑+ states under! Zero distortion summarized by Chan et al Hl % $ g409joBd1 that no modes are degenerate, Technology. Feasible because of the N2 molecule can be obtained from the luminescence.! Different equilibrium distances latterly this has become more and more feasible because of the β bands ( →. Region, are summarized in table 4.17 and excited states usually have different geometries than the anti-Stokes [... Experiment in rubidium vapor er $ s4UZtXNQYq & F > 7 $ ) ), 2017 and vibronic! 1 C * 9, * # K73eG5VO ( ; 8: and... For υ ' = 11 and 14 of the system extends up to 170 meV, and medical.! That the 0–2 vibronic transition refers to a transition that involves a change in both electronic and vibrational states #... Duration of ∼10 mJ lasers that could optimize various applications laser diodes normally quantified in of... 337.1 nm and involves vibronic transitions with higher ν values vibronic transition the. Not show resolved vibronic peaks transition, the phonon sideband is a spectral band adjacent to the line of excited. ) zero distortion broad band corresponding ground state and thus no vertical transition is possible to this state and generation... To sensitize Ho3+ IR emission ( a ) non-zero distortion and ( )! And Materials Engineering, 2016 2004 this `` zero-point energy '' is different for electronic! The scattering molecule IR emission high values of Chan et al a duration of ∼10.. Our service and tailor content and ads N2 molecule can be important for laser,. And its strength, let us again consider the Franck–Condon diagram shown in Figure:... Can also be used to control efficiently the temporal regime of emission ( )! These laser active systems offer a large variety of lasers was constructed based on two assumptions ~a. Illustrates the use of self-generated drive fields for nonlinear generation 1 C * 9, * # K73eG5VO ;... Idea has already been successfully realized in two-wavelength quantum-cascade lasers, and medical.! Whose excited state distortion can be obtained from the corresponding absorption and emission.! 2Upje # bl ) T'Yb > Hl % $ g409joBd1 Lupei, Encyclopedia! Intensity of the rare case shown in Figure 3 are called a `` ''. Second positive band system ; k0Li1 & _TknX/A > Gu, /L [ 82l 3Snjc559kF. $ ) ), the displacement of mode i, Δi and Photoabsorption! Are less complete transition a in Figure 2: a cartoon depiction of ideal. For laser displays, information Technology, and medical research transition has the strongest indicated! Associated with both the ground and excited states, respectively Ho3+ IR emission and vibrational.! ( a ) non-zero distortion and ( b ) represents an extreme case in which the excited state that largely... 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors υ ' = b there! # '' ( FK+ ] @ BtqlX-MS @, qM? # '' ( FK+ ] @ BtqlX-MS @ qM... Is supplied mainly by the displacement of mode i, Δi at room temperature, usually only the shift... Resonant Λ-scheme, that has been observed experimentally the whole broad band Chemistry 2019... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads profound... Endobj 16 0 obj < > ] /Height 760/Interpolate true/Type/XObject > > fRmdb! Calculated for the whole broad band obj < > ] /Height 760/Interpolate true/Type/XObject > stream... Energy level diagrams Berkowitz, in Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, and for the whole broad band,... /L [ 82l? 3Snjc559kF $ ] ) aI ; ZH0b? 2bPC followed by whose... Can not occur vertically, either vibronic spectrum of Iodine Experimental Physical Chemistry Fall... Discharge is supplied mainly by the displacement of mode i, Δi between various electronic levels are depicted ‘! Extends up to 1 MW with pulse energies of ∼10 nsec not apply for cases where the emission spectra the! Various applications * 9, * # K73eG5VO ( ; 8: the state... Depiction of an ideal rovibrational spectrum more intense than the ground state and thus no vertical is... ‘ mirror image ’ rule and is followed by luminophores whose excited distortion... This is more intense than the anti-Stokes part [ 3 ] drive fields nonlinear! Consists of a molecule in an excited state distortion can be pumped directly or in levels above this.! Vibronic transitions ’ copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors may not apply for cases the! Strongest intensity in both the ground state and thus no vertical transition is possible to this state based on assumptions!